Can a State refuse an on-inspection and, if so, what would be the result?
Under the terms of the Treaty, a State Party cannot refuse an on-site inspection on its territory. This in itself would constitute a violation of the Treaty, since a State Party – by signing and ratifying the Treaty – has accepted all its provisions. In the case of a refusal, the matter would be referred to the Conference of the State Parties who will then decide on measures to be taken to ensure compliance with the Treaty, taking into considerations the recommendations by the Executive Council. The Conference or the Executive Council may bring the case to the attention of the United Nations.