Conference on Facilitating the
Entry into Force of the
3 - 5 September 2003
The 2003 Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which will place in the Austria Centre in Vienna, Austria, from 3 to 5 September 2003, is convened under Article XIV of the CTBT for the purpose of examining ways and means to accelerate the Treaty's entry into force. The Conference is expected to renew global awareness of the Treaty and encourage States who have not already done so to sign or ratify it.
Drafted at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, Switzerland, and opened for signature on 24 September 1996, the Treaty bans all nuclear-test explosions in any environment. To date, 168 States have signed the Treaty, 104 have ratified it. The Treaty will enter into force only when all 44 States listed in Annex 2 of the Treaty have ratified it. These are the 44 States that participated in the 1996 session of the Conference on Disarmament and possess nuclear research and power reactors according to data compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thirty-two of them have already ratified the Treaty.
The Conference is convened by the United Nations Secretary-General at the request of the majority of the States that have ratified the CTBT. All States, both signatories and non-signatories, are invited to attend the Conference at a high level. The Conference is also open to specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations, entities that have been granted observer status in the United Nations General Assembly, and non-governmental organizations.
At the opening meeting, Erkki Tuomioja, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Finland, is expected to be chosen as President of the Conference. Other officers will be elected as well. The Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), Wolfgang Hoffmann, will act as Secretary of the Conference. A progress report by Mexico on cooperation between States to facilitate the Treaty's entry into force is anticipated, as well as a general exchange of views by ratifiers and signatories. Statements by non-signatory States and a joint statement by non-governmental organizations are also expected. The discussion is due to conclude on Friday, 5 September, followed by consideration and adoption of a final document and report.
The first Conference on facilitating the entry into force was held from 6 to 8 October 1999 in Vienna, Austria. The second Conference was held from 11 to 13 November 2001 at United Nations Headquarters in New York. A Final Declaration called upon all States that had signed but not yet ratified the Treaty, in particular those States whose ratification is needed for its entry into force, to accelerate their ratification processes. From the time of the convening of the 2001 Conference, 20 more States have ratified the Treaty, including one Annex 2 State, and seven more have signed it.
Under the terms of the Treaty, a global verification regime to monitor compliance with the Treaty must be operational at the time of entry into force. This verification regime, based on an International Monitoring System (IMS) of 337 monitoring facilities around the world and the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, also provides for a consultation and clarification process, on-site inspections and confidence-building measures. The data collected by the IMS and analysed in the IDC will be used by States, upon entry into force, to monitor Treaty adherence and, if necessary, to reach a decision as to whether or not the Treaty has been contravened.
During a meeting of States Signatories of the CTBT in New York in November 1996, a Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO was established, as well as its Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) in Vienna. The Commission is to prepare for the effective implementation of the Treaty and has created three subsidiary bodies: Working Group A on administrative and budgetary matters; Working Group B on verification issues; and an Advisory Group on financial, budgetary and administrative matters.
The 104 States that have deposited their instruments of ratification of the CTBT are: Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guyana, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lesotho, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan and Venezuela.
The 168 States that have signed the Treaty are: Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Annex 2 States
The 32 Annex 2 countries that have ratified the Treaty are: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and the United Kingdom.
The following 12 States whose ratification is required for entry into force, but who have not yet ratified, are: China, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Pakistan, United States and Viet Nam.
Of the Annex 2 States, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India and Pakistan have not signed the Treaty.
More information on the CTBT and the Conference, including a background document issued by the PTS (document CTBT - Art.XIV/2003/3), can be found at www.ctbto.org.