Conference on Facilitating the
Entry into Force of the
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Treaty, New York,
21 to 23 September 2005

PI/2005/17:

The 2005 Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which will take place at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, United States of America, from 21 to 23 September 2005, is convened under Article XIV of the CTBT for the purpose of examining ways and means to accelerate the Treaty's entry into force. The Conference is expected to renew global awareness of the Treaty and encourage States that have not already done so to sign or ratify it.

Drafted at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, Switzerland, and opened for signature on 24 September 1996, the Treaty bans all nuclear-test explosions in any environment. To date, 176 States have signed the Treaty, 125 have ratified it. The Treaty will enter into force only when all 44 States listed in Annex 2 of the Treaty have ratified it. These are the 44 States that participated in the 1996 session of the Conference on Disarmament and possessed nuclear research and power reactors at the time, according to data compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 33 of them have already ratified the Treaty.

The Conference is convened by the United Nations Secretary-General at the request of the majority of the States that have ratified the CTBT. All States, both signatories and non-signatories, are invited to attend the Conference at a high level. The Conference is also open to specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations, entities that have been granted observer status in the United Nations General Assembly, and non-governmental organizations.

At the opening meeting, Alexander Downer, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Australia, is expected to be chosen as President of the Conference. Other officers will be elected as well. Nobuyasu Abe, Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs, will act as Secretary of the Conference. A progress report on cooperation between States to facilitate the Treaty?s entry into force is anticipated, as well as a general exchange of views by ratifiers and signatories. Statements by non-signatory States and a joint statement by non-governmental organizations are also expected. The discussion is due to conclude on Friday, 23 September 2005, followed by consideration and adoption of a final document and report.

The first Conference on facilitating the entry into force was held from 6 to 8 October 1999 in Vienna, Austria. The second Conference was held from 11 to 13 November 2001 at United Nations Headquarters in New York. The third Conference took place from 3 to 5 September 2003 in Vienna. The Final Declaration stressed the importance of a universal and effectively verifiable comprehensive Treaty as a major instrument in all aspects of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Since the 2003 Conference, 21 States have ratified the Treaty, including one Annex 2 State, and eight have signed it.

Under the terms of the Treaty, a global verification regime to monitor compliance with the Treaty must be operational at the time of entry into force. This verification regime, based on an International Monitoring System (IMS) of 337 monitoring facilities around the world and the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, also provides for a consultation and clarification process, on-site inspections and confidence-building measures. The data collected by the IMS and analyzed in the IDC will be used by States, upon entry into force, to monitor Treaty adherence and, if necessary, to reach a decision as to whether or not the Treaty has been contravened.

During a meeting of States Signatories of the CTBT in New York in November 1996, a Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO was established, as well as its Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) in Vienna. The Commission is to prepare for the effective implementation of the Treaty and has created three subsidiary bodies: Working Group A on administrative and budgetary matters; Working Group B on verification issues; and an Advisory Group on financial, budgetary and administrative matters.

Ratification

The 125 States that have deposited their instruments of ratification of the CTBT are: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guyana, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu and Venezuela.

Signatories

The 176 States that have signed the Treaty are: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Republic of, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia, Federated States of, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Annex 2 States

The 33 Annex 2 countries that have ratified the Treaty are: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and the United Kingdom.

The following 11 States whose ratification is required for entry into force, but who have not yet ratified, are: China, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Pakistan, United States of America and Viet Nam.

Of the Annex 2 States, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India and Pakistan have not signed the Treaty.

More information on the CTBT and the Conference can be found at www.ctbto.org.

For further information on the CTBTO, please see www.ctbto.org or contact:
Annika Thunborg, Chief, Public Information  
T    +43 1 26030-6375  
E    annika.thunborgping@ctbtopong.org
M    +43 699 1459 6375       
I    www.ctbto.org