Page 3: 1993-95 Prelude and formal negotiations

1994: Commencement of CTBT negotiations

(Left to right) Chairman of Working Group 1 (verification) in 1995, Ambassador Lars Norberg of Sweden; Ambassador Michael Weston of the United Kingdom; John Holum, Director of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.

On 3 February 1994, negotiations on a CTBT began under the chairmanship of Miguel Marin-Bosch, a career diplomat in the Mexican Foreign Service who had followed arms control issues in New York and Geneva as well as played an important role in the 1991 Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) Amendment Conference.
Ambassador Marin-Bosch began the negotiations by announcing his intention to create working groups and expert groups that would operate in an informal atmosphere with high transparency.

Following the example set in the CWC negotiations, CTBT delegates would propose language for insertion into the Treaty text. As the delegates would certainly not agree on all proposed language, contested articles were placed in square brackets for later resolution. Emblematic of the clear divergence of opinion on substantive issues surrounding the Treaty, at one point during the negotiations an estimated 1,200 words and phrases in the rolling text remained in brackets.

Emblematic of the clear divergence of opinion on substantive issues surrounding the Treaty, at one point during the negotiations an estimated 1,200 words and phrases in the rolling text remained in brackets.

1994: Creation of working groups

Two Working Groups were established on 16 February 1994. Working Group 1 was to address issues of verification, while Working Group 2 would consider legal and institutional aspects of the Treaty. Some of the issues discussed by Working Group 1 included the technologies and characteristics of the verification regime, what measures were necessary to implement the CTBT and the nature of the future international organization tasked with the administration of the CTBT. Working Group 2 dealt with the scope of the Treaty, national implementation measures, dispute resolution, entry into force, signature and ratification, as well as many other concerns.